Newcastle was discovered in 1797 when it became Australia's second European settlement and home to some of the first convicts. They were quickly put to work in labour camps and constructed many of the cities features, some that stand even today. One of these, the Bogey Hole rock pool, is a swimming pool that was cut out of the rock on the shoreline so as the crashing waves would refresh the water within.
On the headland lies Fort Scratchley, which saw action during WWII after returning fire on a Japanese submarine. It became the only fort in Australia that engaged the enemy in a maritime attack.
Like its namesake in England, the City is most famous for its coal and with an export of 80.2 millions tonnes between 2005-2006, it is the worlds largest coal export harbour. In addition to coal, the region was also big in steel, with BHP steelworks established in 1915 and closing in 1999. Since then, Newcastle has turned to tourism as it has tried to re-deploy its workforce and look for new opportunities. As the gateway to the Hunter region and with 2 domestic airports, Newcastle has so far successfully capitalised on this market.
Visit this Newcastle website to learn more about Newcastle.
Queensland - the Sunshine State.
New South Wales - the First State.
Victoria - the Garden State.
Tasmania - the Apple Isle.
South Australia - the Festival State.
Western Australia - the Real Thing.
Northern Territory - Outback Australia.